Professional Photographic Practice Bibliography

Allen, W. (1979) Manhattan. [DVD] United Kingdom: Twentieth Century Fox Home Ent. (Europe) Ltd.

And Now It’s Dark (2014) Homepage [online] available from <; [15 Apr 2015]

Aperture (2015) Todd Hido: Sources and Influences [online] available from <; [5 Apr 2015]

BFI (2014) The Sight and Sound Interview: William Klein [online] available from <> %5B3 Apr 2015]

Birmingham Mail (2015) Everyman Cinema at The Mailbox: What to Expect from the Luxurious New Cinema [online] available from <> %5B24 Feb 2015]

Bordwell, D. and Thompson, K. (2003) Film History: An Introduction. 2nd edn. New York: McGraw-Hill

Bosséno, C. (1997) La prochaine séance : Les Français et leurs cinés Poche. Paris: Gallimard

Campany, D. (2008) Photography and Cinema.  London: Reaktion Books

Corrigan, T. and White, P. (2012) The Film Experience: An Introduction. 3rd edn.  New York: Palgrave MacMillan

Culture 24 (2010) Guest article: The work of John Maltby in the RIBA Library Photographs Collection [online] available from <> %5B19 Mar 2015]

Curzon Cinemas (n.d.) Homepage [online] available from <; [Jan 2015]

Dan Holdsworth (n.d.) Megalith [online] available from <; [2 Apr 2015]

David Moore (n.d.) David Moore [online] available from <> %5B26 Jan 2015]

David Rule (n.d.) David Rule [online] available from <> %5B23 Feb 2015]

David Spero (n.d.) Churches [online] available from <> %5B11 Mar 2015]

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Dot Galerie (2006) Y’ A PAS PHOTO [online] available from < &gt> %5B14 Feb 2015]

Emma Critchley (n.d.) Emma Critchley  [online] available from <> %5B30 Jan 2015]

Empty Stages (n.d.) Empty Stages [online] available from <> %5B11 Feb 2015]

Everyman Cinema (n.d) Venues [online] available from <> %5B 20 Jan 2015]

Eyeles, A. (1999) Gaumont British Cinemas. London: BFI Publishing

Eyeles, A. (2002). Odeon Cinemas. London: BFI Publishing

Flickr (2015) Prince Charles Cinema [online] available from <> %5B28 Feb 2015]

Frank Bohbot (2015) Cinema [online] available from <> %5B16 May 2015]

Geraghty, C. (2000) British Cinema in the Fifties: Gender, Genre and the ‘New Look’. London: Routledge

Guggenheim (2015) Bernd and Hilla Becher: Water Towers (Wassertürme) [online] available from <> %5B19 Jan 2015]

Gray, R. (1996) Cinemas in Britain: One Hundred Years if Cinema Architecture. London: Lund Humphries Publishers

Herwig Photo (2014) Soviet Bus Stops [online] available from <; [28 Jan 2015]

Hido, T. (2014) Todd Hido: On Landscapes, Interiors and the Nude. New York: Aperture

Hiroshi Sugimoto (n.d.) Theaters [online] available from <> %5B19 Jan 2015]

Islington’s Lost Cinemas (2013) Islington’s Lost Cinemas [online] available from <> %5B10 Mar 2015]

iTunes (2013) Lost Cinemas of Castle Park  [online] available from <> %5B 9 Feb 2015]

Jacqueline Hassink (n.d.) The Table of Power [online] available from <> %5B16 Jan 2015]

Jeff Bruows (n.d.) Franchised Landscape 2 [online] available from <; [1 Apr 2015]

Jeff Bruows (n.d.) Highway Landscape [online] available from <; [1 Apr 2015]

Jeff Bruows (n.d.) Homepage  [online] available from <; [1 Apr 2015]

Jeff Bruows (n.d.) Typologies [online] available from <; [1 Apr 2015]

Joseph Holmes (2015) The Booth [online] available from <h> [10 Feb 2015]

Kuhn, A. (2002) An Everyday Magic: Cinema and Cultural Memory. London: I.B Tauris & Co

Lake Side Arts (2014) And Now It’s Dark [online] available from <> %5B15 Apr 2015]

LIFE (n.d.) Life at the Movies: In Praise of Sitting in the Dark With Strangers [online] available from <> %5B11 Feb 2015]

Mailbox Life (2015) The Mailbox secures luxury cinema brand Everyman Cinemas [online] available from <> %5B24 Feb 2015]

Mariano, P. (2011) These Amazing Shadows. [online] available from <> %5B12 Feb 2015]

Matthias Hoch (2005) About [online] available from <> %5B1 Feb 2015]

Michele Bressan (2011) Waiting For The Drama [online] available from <> %5B16 Jan 2015]

Mitch Epstein (n.d.) The City [online] available from <> %5B16 Jan 2015]

Phaidon (2011) Get Ready For Lift Off [online] available from <; [13 Apr 2015]

Photo Berlin (2013) De Luigi [online] available from <> %5B13 Feb 2015]

Picturehouse (n.d.) Homepage [online] available <> %5B25 Jan 2015]

Sam Nightingale (2015) Islignton’s Lost Cinemas [online] available from <> %5B10 Mar 2015]

Scorsese, M. (1976) Taxi Driver. [DVD] United Kingdom: Sony Pictures Home Ent. (Europe) Ltd.

Scott, R. (1982) Blade Runner. [DVD] United Kingdom: Warner Home Ent. (Europe) Ltd.

ShortList (n.d.) Coolest Cinemas in the UK [online] available from <> %5B27 Jan 2015]

Stedelijk (n.d.) Jeff Wall: Tableaux, Pictures, Photographs [online] available from <]> [29 Apr 2015]

Stefano De Luigi (n.d.) Cinema Mundi [online] available from <> %5B18 Feb 2015]

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The Cinemas Project (n.d.) The Cinemas Project [online] available from <> %5B10 Mar 2015]

The Guardian (2010) 10 of the best . . . independent cinemas [online] available from <> %5BJan 2015]

The Story Institue (2015) Cinema Series [online] available from <> %5B16 May 2015]

Tim Ethchells (2003) Empty Stages [online] available from <> %5B11 Feb 2015]

Time Out (2015) Independent cinemas [online] available from <> %5B6 Feb 2015]

Time Out (2015) Sign the Petition to Protect the Curzon Soho [online] available from <> %5B28 Feb 2015]

Urbanautica (2011) Phototalks: Jeff Bruows [online] available from <; [5 Apr 2015]

Virgin Atlantic (2013) Five of London’s Best Independent Cinemas [online] available from <> %5B19 Jan 2015]

Virgin Atlantic (2013) Five of New York’s Best Arthouse Cinemas [online] available from <> %5B19 Jan 2015]

Visual News (2012) The People in the Projector Room [online] available from <> %5B19 Feb 2015]

W-Co (2015) Razor Snap Frame LED Lightbox [online] available from <> %5B24 Apr 2015]

White, S. (2015) independent cinema [email] to Bartlett, L. [9 Mar 2015]

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Will Steacy (n.d.) Homepage [online] available from <; [15 Apr 2015]

YouTube (2012) Broadway by Light (William Klein – 1958) [online] available from <> %5B19 Mar 2015]

YouTube (2013) How to Build a Light Box [online] available from <> %5B28 Apr 2015]

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YouTube (2009) Manhattan (Opening) [online] available from <> %5B1 Apr 2015]



My final revised proposal for this module can be found here: Final Proposal Lucy Bartlett

Critical Reflection

 A Dark Room With Strangers – Lucy Bartlett

For my final major project, I had the idea of photographing independent cinemas as I was intrigued as to how I could photograph these venues in an interesting and original way. Having starting out by photographing the student union cinema, it is very different to where I ended the project when I was looking at cinema exteriors at night.

My project included a range of experimentation, whether it was shooting on colour medium format or photographing the outside of cinemas at day and in a topographical style. I had researched into photographers who had photographed cinemas and looked into film theory and cinema building history. However, a weakness of my working method was that my research was too broad. Having a wide research method was counterproductive as it clouded my judgement as to which direction I should go in. At one point, I was shooting too widely as I had no real focus.

After receiving feedback on my work, it was apparent that I couldn’t articulate the concept of the project. Although I knew I was photographing cinemas, I didn’t know what the project was about or where it was going. I had hit a wall and I was taking pictures senselessly, which was another weakness of my working method. Although it was frustrating, it was a real turning point for the project. Looking back on my work, one of my images of exterior lights at night stood out. I realised I could photograph cinemas at night when the exterior lighting was at its brightest and the cinema would look most aesthetically pleasing. The aim was to create images that were visually appealing so people would want to go to them. This was a more precise and viable idea that was achievable, with a solid concept.

My target audience was film fans that don’t go to independent cinemas. I wanted to bring a new audience to the world of alternative cinema-going. There is not a problem as such with independent cinemas, but I wanted to bring attention away from the multiplexes and onto the independents. The work is a glorification and a showcase of these places, hence why I wanted bold, colourful and striking images that would attract people. The final images are crafted to look like abstract establishing shots. Not always obvious to the viewer as to what it is showing, they include subtle cinema references to suggest and allude to.

Although I researched into many practitioners and into theory, William Klein’s ‘Broadway By Light’ was a key influence on my final piece as I was inspired by his use of abstract framing and use of colour. Analyising Todd Hido and Jeff Bruows’ night photography also helped my understanding of this area of photography.

In regards to presentation strategy, I thought that displaying my work in a light box would be the most effective way of presenting the project. By back lighting the image, it is illuminating the photograph. At A1 in size, the light box is big enough in scale to draw in viewers from afar. The light box conceptually resonates with the topic explored is and represented in the work. The concept is about drawing a new audience to alternative cinema-going, so visual attraction is key with both the work and how it is presented. The theme of artificial light is central to the images and their presentation. There is no denying that there is a commercial aspect to my work as I am essentially promoting these venues. As my final piece was designed to be part of a group exhibition, I had to consider how it would stand out and the light box does exactly this. It relates to contemporary photographic practice as I’ve considered presenting my work in less traditional ways.

Although I wanted to create a magazine to showcase the body of work, I received feedback on this and it was clear that this was not the way to present. In hindsight, this was for the best. I did wan to show off the rest the series considering that the light box only showed a single image. This is why I chose to present in the portfolio box as they don’t have to be in a read in a certain order and they are presented as professional prints. The photographs work better in this context.

A particular strength of mine throughout was my time management and organisation. I learned to take responsibility for planning the cinemas I wanted to photograph and when and managed to do so independently.

Overall, I believe that the final exhibition piece effectively communicates what I intended it to. It responds to modern independent cinemas by drawing in a new audience and this is achieved by producing bold visual work in a light box. This concept is reflected in the final body of work. The body of work has evolved greatly since my initial proposal. Despite struggling to pinpoint what exactly it was I wanted to say with my work, I eventually got there through rigorous experimentation and critical thinking. I said in my initial proposal that I wanted to create work I am proud of and I believe I have achieved this.

Final Images: Portfolio Box and Light Box

Final Image For Light Box

The image of the Everyman Baker St cinema became to symbolise and represent my project. When I was seeking feedback on my images, both peers, lecturers and guest mentors agreed that this image was the one that was working for the project. The idea behind the project was to showcase the world of independent cinemas, so I created bold, dynamic, abstract images that demanded to be seen. This image achieves and fulfils that aim. It doesn’t entirely give away it is a cinema, but the iconic imagery should register with the viewer. Through the use of black, white and gold, the image conveys a classic vibe but as I shot digitally, is contemporary.

Below is a mock up of what I wanted the exhibition piece to look like in context. As I had the one light box to present, I couldn’t create a variety of mock up presentations. However, the concept is simple and the the delivery of the work is simple too.

EXH mock up


I decided to buy from W-Co the light box I would be using for the exhibition. It may have been pricey, but it the final product is top-quality. Weighing in at around 10kg, the piece is heavy but that was to be expected, and at A1 size, it is big enough to grab attention, even without the lights on. With the lights, it grabs attention even more so as the entire image is lit up.

Light Box on in the Dark

After scrapping the magazine idea, I found it difficult to think of the most effective way of showcasing the rest of my work. Although I was happy with a fair amount of the images I had taken, I had to present a narrowed down selection that best represented the project and my intentions. The final learning objective was  ‘6 ) produce high quality photographic material within a self-defined and extended body of work’ so this was why I had to showcase what I considered the extended body of work.

As I had a huge amount of photographs from the shoots I’ve done, I need a second opinion on what was working and what needed to be cut. In an APT with Anthony he picked out the ones he thought worked best. I considered his selection, but ultimately came to my on edit.

A selection of images – process of editing
Getting feedback on the work – Anthony’s edit

The portfolio box is made up of only 10 8’x10′ images in high-quality plastic sleeves. As the box was 8 x 10, I had to lose an inch off each photo, but I didn’t tend to lose so much it ruined the image when doing it. With the images that made the selection, I wanted to get my concept across. I picked images that were abstract or at least partly abstract so the viewer had to work what the images were off themselves, were bold and striking and as a collective, were varied in colour, composition and, angle so they didn’t seem monotonous together.

81 6 714 913 10 1211


The final selection was 10. The one I was less sure on was the ‘Strange’ one as it is a little different to the project, but when I was picking the final images I was cautious not to over too many images of the boards with text on. At least this image breaks up the pattern a bit, much like the one of the blurred lights. The aim of the project was to lure in viewers, and the black and pink tinted lights of this was does do this.

I excluded the image I used for the light box simply because it was already being used for that so I saw the box as a way of showing other images of the project.

In the box, the viewer can move the images. The order will get mixed up and that’s fine because they can make their own pairings of the images. Looking back, I’m glad I chose this over the magazine as my images look professional and slick when presented in the portfolio box.


Artist Statement

A Dark Room With Strangers encapsulates the magic of independent cinemas within the UK. Using still photography as a way to document the signage, exterior architecture and facades of these venues during the nighttime, the body of work captures the nostalgia of cinema-going a world away from the multiplexes.

The series explores alternative cinemas in urban environments as a way to showcase the beauty of these establishments and their cultural value as part of both British and cinema heritage.

Presentation Strategy Discussion with Matt and Caroline

As I was planning on presenting a magazine alongside the light box, I needed to start actually making it. I spoke to Matt Johnston about my idea and he said that I may be shooting myself in the foot with this idea. Is it the best way to present this body of work? He didn’t think so. Anthony questioned why I wanted to do a magazine at the formative feedback session. My reasoning was that I had collected a range of brochures which advertise what’s on when visiting the cinemas, so I thought I could present my work in a similar format. Anthony thought that this was too literal, and looking back, may be it was. I think because I thought of that idea ages ago, it lingered in my mind. I had the light box which was showing the work in a way that I wanted to.

Admittedly, the images could work in pairs and Matt said this too, but there is no over arching narrative to the work so it would be hard to sequence them, especially when I had so many images that needed to be edited down.

I knew I wanted to present the rest of the work from the series at the exhibition, but no longer knew how. I spoke to Caroline about this predicament and suggested that I present the other images in an 8×10 box. This would act as a portfolio for the rest of the body of work. So this, was  what I did as I felt strongly about presenting the other images as the light box would only show one. As much as I wanted to do the magazine, in hindsight I’m glad I didn’t. The portfolio box will look smarter and it means the viewer can look at whatever prints they want to as there is no structured sequence to the images.

Making a Light Box .v. Buying One

After my formative feedback session, I spoke to Jon about how I could possibly make my own light box for the degree show. I showed him what I expected the light box to roughly look like, as shown below.

Sketch of idea for exhibition

Here is my more formal plans for the exhibition requirement sheet. Plans for Exhibition

Jon did a sketch of how you could technically and theorical make the light box from scratch. Below is a scan of how Jon believed I could make the light box.

The issue was I had under 4 weeks to make this. Jon said it would probably cost me a few hundred pounds to make it myself. Although I could make it myself, I would be better off getting a carpenter to make it for me, which would certainly boost the price further as I know no one with skills like that.

John's Sketch


After having the conversation with Jon, I began to research more into how I could. There were plenty of videos on YouTube detailing how to make them such as:


I headed to B&Q to see what materials they had. I figured that having at least 4 think blacks of wood, a large sheet of MDF and sheets of bulbs for the lighting were the main things I would need to look for, as the slideshow shows below:

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The thing was, I didn’t know where to even begin with making a light box. With time not on my side, I had to decide quickly. I decided I’d rather pay more for a ready made light box knowing the light box worked and more importantly, was safe. Having looked into the company W-Co, which was used by big named commercial brands, I decided to go with them. I decided as they were pricey, I would get 1 A1 light box as opposed to 2-3 A4 ones as I think it is better to do one well then several not so well. The project is all about light and attraction, so the A1 fulfilled this better.

Final verdict: Buying

W-Co LED Light Box


YouTube (2013) How to Build a Light Box [online] available from <; [28 Apr 2015]

YouTube (2015) How to build a light box! [online] available from < &gt; [28 Apr 2015]

W-Co (2015) Razor Snap Frame LED Lightbox [online] available from <; [24 Apr 2015]

Lightbox Presentation Strategy Research

First Hand  Research 

The Photographers’ Gallery – Ponte City

IMG_0630IMG_0631 IMG_0629IMG_0627 IMG_0625

Anthony told myself and the group that it may be worth while checking out this years Deutsche Borse Photography Prize exhibition at The Photographers’ Gallery in London as a way of seeing how contemporary photographers were displaying there work.

Although there were several photographers exhibiting there work, there was one very relevant to mine; not in content, but in presentation. Mikhael Subotzky and Patrick Waterhouse’s ‘Ponte City’ is a joint project that documents the 54 storey building in South Africa designed for the middle class, yet became a place of refuge for the poor and criminal. The artist statement for the project, as shown in the top image, stated that both Subotzky and Waterhouse, a South African and a Briton, worked not only with those that inhabit the block, but with archives and found material along with photographing the tower. It states that the project incorporates both the ‘dreams and nightmares’.

The light boxes dominated the room. The first thing my eyes were drawn to once I walked into the room was. I liked how the light boxes represented the tower, as it was literally from the floor to the ceiling. The viewer had to look up to, which reflected the dominance of the tower as in real life, you would have to strain your neck to see the top of it. The images at the top wouldn’t be appreciated like the ones in the middle, but with so many images within the light box, it didn’t really matter as you understand the work without having to look at ever individual image.


IMG_0633IMG_0634 IMG_0635

I had done some brief research into what companies sold light boxes. One called W-Co had been used by many big commercial names, so they seemed like a quality place to buy from. On their website, they listed BFI IMAX as a company who had bought light boxes from them. The BFI IMAX was actually one of the cinemas I photographed for the project, so I headed back to London to check out the quality of the light boxes for myself.

Going into a cinema to photograph their movie posters was a bit of weird experience, but it was great to check what the light boxes looked like. On the website, they said BFI IMAX had had customised light boxes made, so these were bigger than A0. As the middle image shows, the poster was too small which made me a little worried but I figured this was because they were customised to a bigger size. The image was lit well and even, and this was the main thing I wanted to know.

The metal framing seemed well made and fairly thick and durable. Overall, they seemed like good light boxes. Having seen them in their context, it reassured me that this might be a good company to buy from.

Second Hand Research

Jeff Wall

Since the 1980s, Wall has produced critically acclaimed work in the form of color transparencies backlit by fluorescent light strips and presented in lightboxes. He was one of the first artists to make photographs on a large scale. The standard lightbox was created for the primary purpose of outdoor advertising. In Wall’s work, this medium became a platform for his figurative tableaux, street scenes and interiors, landscapes and cityscapes. Wall explores themes such as the relationships between men and women and the boundary between metropolis and nature. He offers social commentary on violence and cultural miscommunication, and conjures seductive nightmarish fantasies and personal memories. These scenes provide the basis for photographic reconstructions of Wall’s experience. They derive their inherent suspense from a combination of extreme realism and sometimes elaborate artifice.


As discussed in the second formative feedback session, I should consider looking at how Jeff Wall made use of light boxes with his work. I researched into his latest show ‘Jeff Wall: Tableaux, Pictures, Photographs’, which was shown at the Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam last year. The work spans from 1996 until 2013. The entire exhibition was presented back lit.

The images are massive in scale and as the text above states, Wall was pioneering in printed on a large scale. He has also been using light boxes to present his work since the 1980s, so presenting in this way is nothing new, but as this year’s Deutsche Borse exhibition shows, it is still used today to present work in an exhibition context. Wall aims to bring light (quite literally) to certain situations he has photographed, both staged and upstaged. There is a cinematic quality to his work and the large scale of theses images means that they demand to be looked at.

At the same time, he analyzes and expands the visual language of photography by adding elements from painting, cinema, theater. 


Like I mentioned, Wall makes use of cinema elements. This has confirmed that I have gone the right way about presenting my own work as it too takes on elements from cinema. The light box illuminates these filmic images in a way a movie is, so the use of light box makes sense here.


Stedelijk (n.d.) Jeff Wall: Tableaux, Pictures, Photographs [online] available from <]> [29 Apr 2015]